Government system

The constitution of the Principality of Seborga is called the “General Statutes”. The current version was approved by the Sovereign People, through a special vote, on 8 May 2022 and came into force on 1st June 2022. The previous General Statutes had been adopted, again by popular referendum, on 23 April 1995.

Title II of the General Statutes defines the order of the State.

The form of government of the Principality of Seborga is the elective monarchy.
The institutional structure of the Principality consists of:
– the Prince;
– the Crown Council;
– the Council of Priors;
– the Sovereign People.
The government of the Principality of Seborga is entrusted to the Prince and the Crown Council. The Council of Priors has an advisory and guarantee function.

The Prince is Head of State and Head of Government, Commander-in-Chief of the Corps of the Guards.
He represents the Principality, guarantees compliance with the General Statutes and the Laws, ensures the regular functioning of public authorities and the continuity of the State.
The Prince appoints and dismisses the Crown Councilors, including the Secretary of State; he assigns and withdraws the powers to each of them; he convenes and presides over the Crown Council; he proposes for the approval of Decrees and Laws and, after consulting the Crown Councilors, promulgates them.
The Prince, or The Princess, is elected by popular vote, holds office for 7 years and can be re-elected without a limit on the number of consecutive terms.

The Crown Council, chaired by the Prince, represents the government of the Principality. It establishes the political direction of the state, assisting the Prince in exercising his authority and discussing the approval of decrees and laws with him; it directs the public administration.
Out of the Crown Councilors:
– 4 are indicated by the Prince already in the phase of his candidacy and are elected together with him;
– 5 are later identified by the Sovereign People through popular consultation.
Provided that the 9 Crown Councilors have already been identified as described above, in particular cases the Prince can then appoint up to a maximum of 5 additional Crown Councilors.

The Secretary of State is the Prime Minister of the Principality and heads the Secretariat of State. He is appointed by the Prince within the Crown Council.
He represents the Prince in case of impediment. He is responsible for maintaining the population, electoral and motorization registers and issues the administrative documents of the Principality by order of the Prince. He oversees the conduct of elections and referendums.

The Council of Priors is a consultative body and has constitutional guarantee functions.
It receives popular petitions from the citizens of the Principality and can issue opinions to the Prince and the Crown Council. It participates in the constitutional review process and can also take part in the process for the election of the Prince.
The Council of Priors is composed of those who simultaneously comply with all the following requirements:
– have, or be entitled to obtain, the citizenship of the Principality by right of birth or residence;
– have permanently lived in Seborga for the term provided by the law;
– have at least one living child and parent.
The office of Prince or Crown Councilor is incompatible with that of Prior.

The Sovereign People is made up of all citizens of the Principality of Seborga who are validly registered in the Population Register of the Principality and who are in possession of the personal documents issued by the Principality. The nationality of the Principality can be requested by anyone who meets at least one of the following requirements:
– have been generated or adopted by a father or mother having the citizenship of the Principality of Seborga (right of birth – ius sanguinis);
– be born in Seborga (birthright – ius soli);
– be resident in Seborga for at least 3 years (right of residence);
– have a property in Seborga for at least 3 years (real estate property right);
– have been the owner of a commercial activity based in Seborga for at least 3 years (employment right);
– have been naturalized citizen of the Principality of Seborga by sovereign decision (naturalization);
– hold or have held the office of Prince of Seborga or Crown Councilor.